Leukemia- What is it?

Leukemia is a type of cancer that starts in the body’s soft tissues and bone marrows. Blood cells are particularly made in the bone marrow. Bone marrows are the ones that make the three blood components such as the RBC, WBC, and Platelets. RBC or the red blood cell carries the oxygen systemically, oxygen is important in the blood circulation- it is one component that needs by the cells inorder to live. The white blood cells are the soldiers of the body, and help it to fight infection and protect it from harmful antigens that enter it. Platelets help in healing wounds by blood clotting.

If a patient has leukemia, the bone marrow makes a lot of abnormal leukocytes or abnormal white blood cells that grows faster and never stops from growing. In time, these leukemia cells crowds out the normal cells of the blood thus leading to serious complications such as bleeding, anemia, and infection. These leukemia cells can also metastasize in the lymph nodes and other parts of the body causing pain and edema or swelling.

There are 4 types of leukemia:

  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia,
  • Acute Myelogenous Leukemia,
  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, and
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, and the new type Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia have been found to be mainly in children; but the most common Leukemia in children is the one called Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia is common in adults. However, there are leukemias that are less common like the Hairy Cell Leukemia.

Causes

  • Exposure to radiation in large quantity,
  • Exposure to chemicals like benzene, smoke, exposure to chemotherapeutic agents, and
  • Genetic problems such as Down’s syndrome.

Symptoms

Causes Symptoms and Treatment for Leukemia

  • Fever
  • Joint pain
  • Easy bleeding
  • Headache
  • Weight loss
  • Swelling lymph nodes in the armpit, neck, and groin
  • Other forms of infection;
  • Body weakness
  • Enlarged spleen

Diagnosis

  • Checking for lymph nodes and spleen enlargement through physical examination,
  • And other blood test like complete blood count as Leukemia is caused by problem in the WBC, so it is increased in the findings of WBC. Like any cancer

Treatment

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The Deadliest Cancer of All

The scariest type of cancer is probably Brain Cancer because it affects one of the most important parts of the human body. Brain Cancer starts with tumor growth that can either be malignant or benign. Brain cancers are rare but are very deadly.

The benign type of brain tumors can be further divided into:

  • Chordomas starts out in the spine as embryonic cells;
  • Osteomas starts in the skull; schwannomas that covers around cells in the nerves; pinealomas in the pineal gland;
  • Pituitary adenomas in the pituitary gland;
  • Menangiomas that starts in the membrane that covers brain; and
  • Hemangioblastomas that starts in blood vessels.
  • Gliomas are the most common malignant brain cells, and the most common Glioblastoma is Glioblastoma multiforme.
  • Oligodendroglioma is also another form of glioma that is quite rare and is often seen in adults.
  • Medullablastoma starts from the growth in the medulla at the brain’s base.
  • And lastly, adenocarcinoma and sarcoma that are the most uncommon type of tumors in the brain.

Risk Factors

  • Brain cancer is caused by several factors but the main cause is yet to be known
  • Brain cancer can metastasize and can destroy other parts of the brain, the lungs, breasts, skin, and in the blood.
  • Exposure to chemical substances like vinyl chloride;
  • Radiation exposure of the head

Symptoms

  • Dizziness
  • Vision changes
  • Seizures
  • Problems in coordination
  • Confusion
  • Mood changes
  • Numbness
  • Weakness
  • Problems in the memory.
  • Headaches can also be a symptom of brain cancer but most headaches are often due to conditions that are less serious like migraines.

Diagnosis

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